PARKINSON'S DISEASE AND ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM: A BRIEF UPDATE
PDF

Keywords

Parkinson disease
cannabinoids
aged
cannabinoid CB1 receptor
cannabinoid CB2 receptor

How to Cite

Lima, R. C. da S., Sousa, H. V. de, Amorim, I. G. de, Silva, S. O., & Marinho, S. A. (2024). PARKINSON’S DISEASE AND ENDOCANNABINOID SYSTEM: A BRIEF UPDATE. REVISTA FOCO, 17(6), e5295 . https://doi.org/10.54751/revistafoco.v17n6-009

Abstract

In Parkinson's disease, dopaminergic neurons located in the substantia nigra of the brain are destroyed, affecting the patients' motor function. The endocannabinoid system is responsible for controlling neuronal homeostasis and its alteration is related to neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's. A literature review regarding the relationship between the endocannabinoid system and Parkinson's disease was carried out through a search in the Pubmed database. Complete publications from the last year were included, using 15 papers. Treatment with cannabinoid medications for Parkinson's patients should not be the first choice, being restricted to adjuvant therapy as they are elderly and vulnerable. Cannabis extracts have shown in experimental studies neuroprotective and inflammation modulating actions. Pure cannabidiol is safe, with few side effects. Computational analyzes demonstrated that the binding of cannabidiol to the CB1 and CB2 receptors induced structural changes in them. Levels of CB1 receptors were lower in specific areas of the brain of Parkinson's patients and the decline in these receptors was correlated with worse severity of motor symptoms. Selective CB2 receptor agonists have neuroprotective and immunomodulatory actions, reducing inflammation and the formation of defective proteins. Hyperpolarized current-induced inhibition of CB1 receptors improved muscle stiffness but worsened symptoms of depression and anxiety in animals. The use of exogenous cannabinoids in patients with Parkinson's disease is not yet consolidated, and more clinical studies are needed to confirm the safety of the interaction with the endocannabinoid system.

https://doi.org/10.54751/revistafoco.v17n6-009
PDF

References

AJALIN, R. M. et al. Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 in Parkinson's Disease: A Positron Emission Tomography study with [18 F]FMPEP-d2. Mov Disord., v. 37, n. 8, p. 1673-1682, 2022.

ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASIL PARKINSON (ABP). Ebook Sintomas Iniciais (prodrômicos). Disponível em: https://www.parkinson.org.br/_files/ugd/14645c_0d074243045943c480afd236a890b92e.pdf. Acesso em: 13 jun. 2023a.

ASSOCIAÇÃO BRASIL PARKINSON (ABP). O que é Parkinson. Disponível em: https://www.parkinson.org.br/sobre-parkinson. Acesso em: 13 jun. 2023b.

BASILE, M. S.; MAZZON, E. The role of Cannabinoid Type 2 Receptors in Parkinson's Disease. Biomedicines, v. 10, n. 11, p. 2986, 2022.

BRASIL. MINISTÉRIO DA SAÚDE. BIBLIOTECA VIRTUAL EM SAÚDE. Doença de Parkinson. Abril 2012. Revisada Março 2019. Disponível em: https://bvsms.saude.gov.br/doenca-de-parkinson/#:~:text=O%20que%20%C3%A9%3A%20%C3%A9%20uma,do%20c%C3%A9rebro%20chamada%20subst%C3%A2ncia%20negra. Acesso em: 13 jun. 2023.

CASTRO, L. H. A. Neurociências em debate. Sistema endocanabinóide: Conceitos, história e possibilidades terapêuticas. Ciên Cogn. nov. 2018. Disponível em: https://cienciasecognicao.org/neuroemdebate/arquivos/4365. Acesso em: 13 jun. 2023.

COLIZZI. M. et al. Therapeutic effect of palmitoylethanolamide in cognitive decline: A systematic review and preliminary meta-analysis of preclinical and clinical evidence. Front Psych., v.13, p. 1038122, 2022. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.1038122.

COSTA, A. C. et al. Cannabinoids in late life Parkinson's Disease and dementia: Biological pathways and clinical challenges. Brain Sci., v. 22, n. 12, p. 1596, 2022. doi: 10.3390/brainsci12121596.

DÁVILA, E. M. et al. Interacting binding insights and conformational consequences of the differential activity of cannabidiol with two endocannabinoid-activated G-protein-coupled receptors. Front Pharmacol., v. 13, p. 945935, 2022. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.945935.

FERNANDEZ-RUIZ, J. et al. Endocannabinois and basal ganglia functionality. Prostglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids., v. 66, n. 2-3. p. 257-267, 2002.

HASUMI, A.; MAEDA, H. Cannabidiol improves haloperidol-induced motor dysfunction in zebrafish: a comparative study with a dopamine activating drug. J Cannabis Res., v. 5, n. 1, p. 6, 2023. doi: 10.1186/s42238-023-00177-w.

IORIO, R.; CELENZA, G.; PETRICCA, S. Multi-Target effects of ß-caryophyllene and carnosic acid at the crossroads of mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration: From oxidative stress to microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. Antioxidants (Basel), v. 11, n. 6, p.1199, 2022. doi: 10.3390/antiox11061199.

ISHIGURO, H. Targeting the endocannabinoidome in neurodegenerative disorders. Front Aging Neurosci., v. 14, p. 1116635, 2023. doi: 10.3389/fnagi.2022.1116635.

LUO, Y. et al. A network pharmacology-based approach to explore the therapeutic potential of Sceletium tortuosum in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. PLoS One, v. 17 n. 8, p. e.0273583, 2022. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0273583.

MACKIE, K. Cannabinoid receptors: where they are and what they do. J Neuroendocrinol., v. 20, e. 1, p. 10-14, 2008. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2826.2008.01671.x.

MORASH, M. G. et al. Identification of minimum essential therapeutic mixtures from cannabis plant extracts by screening in cell and animal models of Parkinson's Disease. Front Pharmacol., v. 13, p. 907579, 2022. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2022.907579.

MOREIRA, F. A. Cannabis, canabinoides e endocanabinoides. Rev Med Minas Gerais., v. 20, n. 3 (supl. 1), p. S1-S100, 2010.

PARKINSON’S FUNDATION (PF). 10 Early Signs: Know how to recognize the most common early symptoms of Parkinson's. Disponível em: https://www.parkinson.org/understanding-parkinsons/10-early-signs. Acesso em: 13 jun. 2023.

PEBALL M. et al. Effects of Nabilone on sleep outcomes in patients with Parkinson's Disease: A Post-hoc analysis of NMS-Nab study. Mov Disord Clin Pract., v. 9, n. 6, p. 751-758, 2022. doi: 10.1002/mdc3.13471.

RIVAS- SANTISTEBAN, R. et al. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor interacts with the angiotensin AT2 receptor. Overexpression of AT2-CB1 receptor heteromers in the striatum of 6-hydroxydopamine hemilesioned rats. Exp Neurol., v. 362, p. 114319, 2023. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2023.114319.

SHIER, A. R. M. et al. Canabidiol, um componente da Cannabis sativa, como um ansiolítico. Rev Bras Psiquiatr., v. 34, n. 1, p. 104-117, 2012.

SOTI, M. et al. Probable role of the hyperpolarization-activated current in the dual effects of CB1R antagonism on behaviors in a Parkinsonism mouse model. Brain Res Bull., v. 191, p. 78-92, 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.brainresbull.2022.10.015.

SOUZA, J. D. R. et al. Adverse effects of oral cannabidiol: An updated systematic review of randomized controlled trials (2020-2022). Pharmaceutics, v. 14, n. 12, p. 2598, 2022. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14122598.

TAVARES, A.; AZEREDO, C. Demência com corpos de Lewy: Uma revisão para o psiquiatra. Arch Clin Psych (São Paulo), v. 30, n. 1 p. 29-34, 2003. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0101-60832003000100004.

URBI, B. et al. Effects of cannabinoids in Parkinson's Disease animal models: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Open Sci., v. 6 n. 1, p. e.100302, 2022. doi: 10.1136/bmjos-2022-100302.

VUIC, B. et al. Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in neurodegenerative proteinopathies: New insights and therapeutic potential. Biomedicines, v. 10, n. 12, p. 3000, 2022. doi: 10.3390/biomedicines10123000.

WALSH, Z. et al. Cannabis for therapeutic purposes:patient characteristcs, acess, and reasons for use. Int J Drug Policy., v. 24, n. 6. p. 511-516, 2013.

Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.